Task 1.6: Integrated assessment
Overall objective: To evaluate the potential of CO2 capture technologies (solvents, sorbents, membranes) and, based on unit modeling and process simulations, point out the direction for further research on these capture technologies.
Contribution to one or more of the overall goals/objectives of BIGCCS
The conclusions from task 1.6 research have throughout the lifetime of BIGCCS been directly comparable to the tangible objectives of 90% CO2 capture rate and fuel-to-electricity penalty of 6 percentage points. Beginning from 2014, increased focus will also be on the requirements that must be put on CO2 capture for achieving a 50% CO2 capture cost reduction compared to most mature technologies.
Task 1.6 achievements thus far
- Investigation of different means of CO2 enrichment in the exhaust of gas turbine-based power processes, including collaboration with Task 1.4 on gas turbine combustion with low oxygen concentrations.
- Investigations of calcium looping (Ca-looping) for post-combustion capture in natural gas combined cycles (NGCC). A systematic approach has been employed where different measures for process efficiency improvement have been applied, covering both power process and Ca-sorbent improvements. The best cases reach an electric efficiency penalty of around 6%-points, i.e. they respond to one of the BIGCCS objectives.
- The fundamental calculations for a novel thermodynamic benchmarking methodology have been conducted, meaning that the inherent thermodynamic penalties of CO2 capture have been determined (figure 1). The pillars in figure 1 show the minimum penalty for different CO2 capture routes and different fuel compositions imposed by the laws of thermodynamics. In addition to these penalties come the penalties imposed by technological constraints (e.g. materials limitations, process unit irreversibilities) and those imposed by economic constraints.